RFID Policy

China RFID technology policy white paper
Ministry of science and technology of the people's Republic of China and other 15 ministries and commissions

  Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a contactless automatic identification technology realized by radio frequency communication.RFID tag has the characteristics of small size, large capacity, long service life and can be reused. It can support fast reading and writing,non visual identification, mobile identification,multi-target identification, positioning and long-term tracking management.The combination of RFID technology and Internet communication technology can realize the tracking and information sharing of goods in the world.RFID technology applied in logistics, manufacturing,public information services and other industries can improve management and operation efficiency,also reduce costs.RFID industry will become a new high-tech industry group and a new growth point of national economy.It is of great strategic significance to study RFID technology and develop RFID industry to improve the level of social informatization,promote sustainable economic development,improve the quality of people's life,enhance public security and national defense security.

  Since the 1990s, RFID technology has developed rapidly.Developed countries and regions have applied it in many fields and actively promoted the internationalization of relevant technologies and application standards.China has initially carried out the R & D and industrialization of RFID related technologies, and began to apply them in some areas.

  With a large population and expanding economic scale, China is becoming the center of global manufacturing.RFID technology has a broad application market.At present, RFID technology and application are developing rapidly,it is necessary to seize this opportunity, focus on the research and development of RFID core technology, and formulate technical standards in line with China's national conditions.

  Developing RFID technology and application is a complex system engineering, involving many industries and government departments, affecting many aspects of society, economy and life,It needs the overall planning and coordination among the government, enterprises and R & D institutions to maximize the rational allocation of resources and complementary advantages.For this reason, the Ministry of science and technology, together with the national development and Reform Commission,the Ministry of Commerce,the Ministry of information industry,the Ministry of communications,the General Administration of customs, the Ministry of railways,the Ministry of public security,the Ministry of education,the Ministry of construction,the Ministry of agriculture,the General Administration of quality supervision,inspection and quarantine,the State Standardization Administration,the State Post Office,the State Food and drug administration,the China Standardization Association,and the China logistics and procurement Union Experts from all departments of the joint organization have experienced nearly a year and prepared this white paper.Based on the principles of science, foresight and guidance, the white paper provides systematic guidance for the development of RFID technology and industry in China in the next few years.

  The white paper has five chapters, respectively describing the current situation and trend of RFID technology development, China's RFID technology development strategy, China's RFID technology development and priority application areas, promoting industrialization strategy and macro environment construction.

■ Chapter 1 the current situation and trend of RFID technology development
1.1 technology development
  The earliest application of RFID technology can be traced back to the identification of enemy and friend targets of aircraft in the Second World War,but it has not been widely used due to technical and cost,In recent years,with the development of large-scale integrated circuit,network communication,information security and other technologies,RFID technology has entered the stage of commercial application.Due to the characteristics of high-speed moving object recognition,multi-target recognition and contactless recognition,RFID technology shows great development potential and application space, and also considered to be one of the most promising information technologies in the 21st century.

  RFID technology involves information, manufacturing, materials and many other high-tech fields, including wireless communication, chip design and manufacturing, antenna design and manufacturing, label packaging, system integration, information security and other technologies.Some countries and international multinational companies are accelerating the development and application of RFID technology. In the past decade, thousands of patents on RFID technology have been generated, mainly in the United States, Europe and Japan.

  According to the different ways of energy supply,RFID tags are divided into three types:active,passive and semi-active;According to different working frequencies, RFID tags are divided into low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), ultra high frequency (UHF) and microwave frequency (MW) tags.At present, the international RFID applications are mainly LF and HF label products;Due to its advantages of long-distance recognition and low cost,UHF label began to be produced on a large scale,it is expected to become the mainstream in the future;MW label has been applied in some countries. China has mastered the design technology of HF chip and successfully realized industrialization. At the same time, UHF chip has also been developed.

  At present, RFID tag antenna is mainly made of etched / stamped antenna, and the material is generally aluminum or copper. With the development of new conductive ink,the advantages of printed antenna are more and more prominent.

  There are many types of RFID reader products,and some advanced products can achieve multi protocol compatibility.China has launched a series of RFID reader products, and the reader module has reached the same level abroad.

  RFID technology has been applied in many fields such as railway number identification, ID card and ticket management, animal identification, special equipment and dangerous goods management, public transportation and production process management in China.

1.2 standard 
  RFID standard system consists of air interface specification, physical characteristics,reader protocol,coding system,test specification, application specification,data management,information security and other standards.The main international organizations that formulate RFID standards are the international organization for Standardization (ISO / IEC). ISO / IEC JTC1 is responsible for formulating international standards related to RFID technology。

  China has a foundation in the standardization research of RFID technology and application,and has carried out the research and formulation of relevant standards from many aspects.The application standards such as "technical specification of integrated circuit card module" and "application technology of construction IC card" have been formulated and widely used;The research work of RFID standard system framework in China has been basically completed.

1.3 development trend 
  In recent years, RFID technology has been applied in many fields of society, which has an important impact on improving people's quality of life, improving the economic benefits of enterprises, strengthening public security and improving the level of social information.

  In the next few years,RFID technology will continue to maintain the momentum of rapid development.New progress will be made in electronic labels,readers,system integration software,public service system, standardization,etc. With the continuous progress of key technologies, RFID products will be more and more abundant,and the application and derivative value-added services will be more and more extensive.

  The development trend of RFID chip design and manufacturing technology is low-power chip, long-distance, high-speed reading and writing, high reliability and low cost.Chip technology will be combined with the application system.

  RFID label packaging technology will be combined with printing, paper making, packaging and other technologies. The low-cost label antenna and low-cost packaging technology printed with conductive ink will promote the large-scale production of RFID label.

  The development trend of RFID reader design and manufacturing is that the reader will be multi-functional, multi interface, multi system, modular, miniaturized, portable and embedded.

  RFID technology integrates with barcode,biometric and other automatic identification technologies,Internet,communication,sensor network and other information technologies can build an omnipresent network environment.And massive RFID information processing,transmission and security pose new challenges to RFID system integration and Application Technology.

■ Chapter 2 RFID technology development strategy in China
  Facing the huge market demand and international competition, China must implement effective technology development strategy, accelerate the independent innovation of RFID technology, and occupy a place in the future international competition.China will drive the development of technologies and products with independent intellectual property rights.;Establish an independent innovation system with enterprises as the main body and break through the key RFID technologies;Participate in international standardization work, propose and establish China's RFID technology standard system;Promote the establishment of technology and Industry Alliance and realize the rapid and healthy development of technology and industry in the environment of international cooperation and competition.
2.1 overall development goals 
  The goal of developing RFID technology in China:Break through a series of key RFID technologies, train a group of professional talents, establish China's RFID technology independent innovation system, and obtain independent intellectual property rights of core technologies;On the basis of independent R & D technology, the industrial chain of independent intellectual property technology will be formed, and the market share of independently developed products will be realized;Through the implementation of demonstration projects,RFID technology will be widely used in the industry to form a large-scale public application;Through research and development of relevant national standards,China's RFID standard system will be formed.

2.2 guiding ideology and principles
  The guiding ideology of developing RFID technology in China:Establish an independent development mode with the enterprise as the main body and the combination of government,production,learning,research and use;Break through the key RFID technology and promote the formation of RFID technology innovation system and industrial chain;According to the combination of international standards and independent standards to develop China's RFID standard system.

According to the above guidelines, the development of RFID technology needs to follow the four principles:
1.independent innovation
  Strive to reach the international advanced level in the core technology field.
  Enterprises should cooperate closely with each other to form a complete industrial chain with international competitiveness.

  Learn from foreign advanced technology, strengthen international exchange and adhere to complementary advantages.
  Strengthen the cooperation and coordination of all links in the industrial chain, encourage each other and jointly promote technological progress.

2.3 development approach and implementation process
2.3.1 development approach
  China's development of RFID technology will form an independent innovation system and a complete industrial chain of China's RFID technology through technical research, key technology research, standards and development strategy research, and service system construction.Through independent innovation, we have broken through key industrialization technologies such as chip design and manufacturing, antenna design and manufacturing, packaging technology and equipment, reader design and manufacturing, electronic tag integration, etc;Through develop middleware and system integration technology to build public information service system and test environment,also establish technical standard system interconnected with international standards.

2.3.2 implementation process
RFID technology implementation process steps:
  The first stage - cultivation(2006-2008):Tracking the research and development of the latest international common technology, combining with the application of key industries, developing RFID technology with independent intellectual property rights. 
  The second stage - growth period(2007-2012):Break through the key technology of application and industrialization, basically form China's RFID standard system and expand the application field.
  The third stage - mature period:Form the international advanced technology system, realize the wide application of RFID technology and integration with other technologies.

■ Chapter 3 RFID technology development and priority application fields in China
  Give priority to the development of key technologies for industrialization and application,establish RFID standard system,and promote the application of key industries.

3.1 key technology
  Carry out the research on RFID industrialization technology and application technology, and establish the technology and service system for the development and application of RFID industry in China.
3.1.1 common foundation and prospective technology
  Research technology with international leading level and great development potential,such as:Ultra low power circuit of tag chip;Security algorithm of tag chip;R&D evelopment of UHF reader core module;UHF and microwave RFID tag antenna;Key technologies of label packaging equipment;Research on integration and integration of RFID and other technologies;Research on RFID system detection and authentication technology;Research on RFID information service system of IPv6 network technology. 
3.1.2 Key technology of RFID industrialization
  The key technologies of RFID industrialization include chip design and manufacturing,antenna design and manufacturing,electronic label packaging technology and equipment,RFID label integration,reader design and manufacturing technology,etc.
(1)chip design and manufacturing
  Development of low-cost, low-power RFID chip design and manufacturing technology, new storage technology, anti conflict algorithm technology, chip security technology, sensor integration technology.
(2)antenna design and manufacture
  Research tag antenna matching technology, antenna structure optimization technology, multi tag antenna optimization distribution technology, reader / writer scanning technology, etc.
(3)RFID label packaging technology and equipment
  Research and development of packaging technology based on low-temperature hot pressing, design optimization of precision mechanism, high-speed motion control, equipment fault self diagnosis and repair, online detection technology, etc.
(4)RFID tag integration
  Research and develop matching technology, anti-interference and safety and reliability technology among chip, antenna and attached special material medium.
(5)reader design
  Research and development of multi reader anti-collision technology,anti-interference technology,UHF reader module development,reader security certification technology,etc.
3.1.3 key technology of RFID application
  Research on RFID application system,RFID system integration and middleware,RFID public service system,RFID testing technology and specifications,and form China's RFID technology development service system.
(1)RFID application architecture
  Study the interface technology and service function of various software, hardware and data in RFID application system, and provide system integration guide for suppliers and users.
(2)RFID system integration and data management
  R&D of RFID integration technology with wireless communication, sensor network, information security, industrial control, RFID application system middleware technology, data processing and cross platform computing technology.
(3)RFID Public Service System
  Establish the basic service system of RFID social application in China, and provide authentication, registration, coding management, multi coding system mapping, coding analysis, retrieval and tracking services.
(4)RFID detection technology and specification
  R&D of RFID tags and related product specifications for different industry applications, specifications between tags and readers, system solution specifications, etc.
3.2 standards and tests
  Research and develop air interface in line with China's radio frequency management regulations; develop coding rules and application standards; develop test specifications; research interconnection between standards; establish public service system standards with independent intellectual property rights, and test standard system.

3.3 priority application fields 
  Encourage and support the priority application of RFID technology in public security, production management, logistics supply chain management, traffic management, military applications, major projects and activities.
3.3.1 public safety
  In order to improve the quality of people's life and build a harmonious society, China needs to strengthen management through the application of RFID technology in various public security fields.
3.3.2 production management and control
  In order to improve the level of manufacturing informatization in China, RFID technology can promote production efficiency and management efficiency. Applications include automobile manufacturing, home appliance production, textile and clothing, etc. 
3.3.3 logistics and supply chain management
  RFID technology realizes item tracking and information sharing and changes the traditional supply chain management mode,also improves the operation efficiency of enterprises.Application include warehousing management,logistics distribution,retail management,container transportation,postal services.
3.3.4 supervision of import and export goods
  The law enforcement department cooperatively applies RFID technology to realize the tracking and positioning supervision of import and export goods, strengthen the level of customs clearance supervision and improve the efficiency of customs clearance. 
3.3.5 traffic control
  Using RFID technology to identify high-speed moving objects, it can locate and count quickly and effectively, which is convenient for vehicle management and control.
3.3.6 military application
  Military application is one of the main directions of RFID technology,military logistics support urgently needs to realize visual management.It includes military material and equipment management, accurate identification of transportation unit,rapid positioning and active search,etc.
3.3.7 major projects and activities
  RFID technology integrates with other related technologies to build a comprehensive service system integrating rapid identification, data collection and information transmission.RFID technology is applied to the comprehensive management of major events such as large-scale games and exhibitions,including ticket management,vehicle management, facility management,etc.

■ Chapter 4 China's RFID industrialization strategy
4.1 guidance
  In the process of RFID technology development and industrialization, key technology breakthrough, market promotion and standard research should be considered.Relying on the principles of unit technology and system integration,investment and cultivation,enterprise operation and government promotion,technological innovation and standard setting,independent R & D and international cooperation,China's RFID industry will achieve independent,healthy and sustainable development.

  The development of RFID industry in China is based on the following ideas: enterprises oriented,government driven, building industry alliance,forming RFID industry chain with independent intellectual property technology; through the construction of industrial base,giving full play to group advantages,building a brand with international competitiveness; carrying out international exchange and cooperation, improving the overall level of RFID industry in China.

4.2 development
  On the basis of independent innovation, we should strengthen policy support,create a good development environment,build industrial bases,accelerate the formation of industrial chains,and enhance the market competitiveness of national products and industries.
  1.Through industry application demonstration and promotion to accelerate the industrialization of research and development results of RFID key technologies and form scale development. 
  2.Through continuous improvement of production equipment from primary level to advanced level to promote industrial upgrading,improve competitiveness and accelerate the overall level of RFID industry chain.
  3.We should create a good development environment actively, combine independent innovation with the introduction of innovative technology, and cultivate the ability of independent design, development and manufacturing.
  4.We should improve industrial policies and build RFID industrial base to realize the convergence of technology and industry,and promote the formation and development of RFID industrial chain. 
  5.We should establish product certification system and focus on promoting core technology products with independent intellectual property rights. 
  6. We should strengthen the construction of public service systems such as RFID technology product testing platform, and enhance the transformation ability of technological research and development achievements. 
  7. We should pay attention to the standardization of RFID products and formulate a series of standards suitable for the development of China's industry.

4.3 implementation process
We should plan the development of RFID industry as a whole and combine with the market development process in steps and stages:
  The first stage - cultivation(2006-2008):Make breakthroughs in technology research and development, standard setting, etc., and preliminarily formed RFID industry chain and a good industrial development environment. 
  The second stage - growth period(2008-2012):Expand RFID application field,form scale production capacity,and promote the sustainable development of RFID industry. 
  The third stage - mature period:Integrate the industrial chain, adapt to the development of new generation technology, and improve the efficiency and efficiency of RFID Application.

Chapter 5 RFID technology development in China
  1. Formulate RFID industry planning and relevant policies in line with China's actual situation,include RFID industry into national key development areas,create a good technology and industry development environment,encourage enterprises to invest and produce in RFID field and promote the formation of RFID industry base.

  2. Establish a cross industry RFID technology and industry development organization to promote the development of RFID from the national level.Establish a joint coordination mechanism to promote the sustainable development of RFID industry and Application.

  3. Carry out the research of RFID strategy and standard system in China.Encourage colleges,research institutes and enterprises to develop their own intellectual property rights and participate in the development of domestic and international RFID technology standards.

  4. Create a good investment environment,encourage enterprises to invest and produce in the field of RFID,promote the construction of RFID industrial base and provide support and preference for RFID manufacturing and application in various forms.

  5. Support the establishment of open technology R & D platform,RFID technology public service platform,RFID technology testing environment and quality assurance system.

  6. Build RFID technology training system,train all kinds of professionals and form a perfect professional training mechanism.

    7. Strengthen the development publicity of RFID technology and industry and create a good social atmosphere.Encourage RFID international exchange activities and cooperation with international enterprises.